What is maternal serum fetoprotein? AFP is a protein normally made by the baby’s liver. It is found in the fluid surrounding the baby in the womb (amniotic fluid). AFP goes through the placenta into the mother’s blood. The AFP blood test is called MSAFP (maternal serum AFP). The AFP can also be measured in the amniotic fluid.
What is the primary purpose of maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein? The primary purpose of maternal serum α-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening is to improve the ascertainment of pregnancies with neural tube defects.
What is normal AFP MoM? A typical normal range is 0.5 to 2.0 or 2.5 MoM. Raised levels of maternal AFP at 16-18 weeks of gestation are found in fetal neural tube defects.
What does an elevated serum alpha-fetoprotein indicate? Increased AFP levels may indicate the presence of cancer, most commonly liver cancer, cancer of the ovary, or germ cell tumor of the testicles. However, not every liver, ovarian, or testicular cancer will produce significant quantities of AFP.
What is maternal serum fetoprotein? – Related Questions
What is an abnormal AFP result?
What do the results mean? If your results show higher than normal AFP levels, it may mean your baby has a neural tube defect such as spina bifida, a condition in which the bones of the spine don’t close around the spinal cord, or anencephaly, a condition in which the brain does not develop properly.
What is a good AFP level?
An AFP level between 10 ng/mL to 20 ng/mL is normal for adults. An extremely high level of AFP in your blood—greater than 400 ng/mL—could be a sign of liver tumors. High levels of AFP may mean other cancers, including Hodgkin disease, lymphoma, and renal cell carcinoma (kidney cancer).
What happens if AFP is high?
If your results show high levels of AFP, it may confirm a diagnosis of liver cancer, or cancer of the ovaries or testicles. Sometimes, high levels of AFP can be a sign of other cancers, including Hodgkin disease and lymphoma, or noncancerous liver disorders.
What is a low AFP level in pregnancy?
Low levels of AFP and abnormal levels of hCG and estriol may indicate the developing baby has Trisomy 21( Down syndrome), Trisomy 18 (Edwards Syndrome) or another type of chromosome abnormality. Abnormal levels may also be a result of the following: A multiples pregnancy.
How do you calculate AFP MoM?
As an example, Alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) testing is used to screen for a neural tube defect (NTD) during the second trimester of pregnancy. If the median AFP result at 16 weeks of gestation is 30 ng/mL and a pregnant woman’s AFP result at that same gestational age is 60 ng/mL, then her MoM is equal to 60/30 = 2.0.
How do you read AFP results?
Alpha fetoprotein normal range is below ten ng/ml. In the case of adults who aren’t pregnant, if the results show that there is a high level of AFP, then it indicates that you have liver disease. The AFP levels fluctuate throughout pregnancy. In pregnant women, a higher AFP level indicates Spina bifida in your fetus.
How can I lower my AFP levels naturally?
Iron reduction therapy by phlebotomy alone or in combination with a low-iron diet is an inexpensive treatment with few side effects and may reduce the risk of hepatocarcinogenesis associated with HCV . A few studies have shown that phlebotomy can reduce serum AFP levels in patients with chronic hepatitis C [34–36].
How accurate are AFP tests?
AFP had high overall accuracy, with a c-statistic of 0.87 (95%CI 0.85 – 0.89). Most importantly, we found that patient characteristics influenced the performance of AFP and could be used to define subgroups in whom it performed particularly well.
Can fatty liver cause elevated AFP?
The presence of hepatic inflammation and/or fibrosis may be the underlying cause of increased serum AFP levels in patients with severe fatty liver. Necrosis or active regeneration may also play a role in these patients.
What does a positive AFP test mean?
A positive AFP PLUS test means that you are in a higher likelihood group for having a baby with a neural tube defect or a chromosome abnormality. However, it does not prove by itself that there is anything wrong with the pregnancy.
What is normal tumor marker range?
Normal range: < 2.5 ng/ml. Normal range may vary somewhat depending on the brand of assay used. Levels > 10 ng/ml suggest extensive disease and levels > 20 ng/ml suggest metastatic disease.
Can AFP levels fluctuate?
Fluctuations in serum AFP levels within the normal range occur in patients during this follow-up period, causing anxiety about relapse. Patients frequently question the significance of an increase in AFP within normal levels and whether it predicts for relapse.
Does AFP testing tell gender?
Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening
It does screen for an increase in chromosomes 21, 18, and 13. It also can detect the gender of baby. It does not screen for all chromosomes.
Do you need to fast for alpha fetoprotein?
The alpha-fetoprotein serum test may be performed if someone is suspected of having liver cancer, certain testicular, or ovarian cancers. Preparation: No fasting required.
How long does it take to get AFP blood test results?
Blood is usually taken from a vein between the 15th and 20th weeks of pregnancy. The blood sample is then sent off to be checked at a lab. Results of the tests are usually ready in 1 to 2 weeks or less, depending on the lab.
What is the function of alpha fetoprotein?
AFP is an analog of serum albumin. The role of the AFP primarily is to transport heavy metal ions and various insoluble molecules in fetus blood circulation, such as copper and nickel, fatty acids, bilirubin, and medications.
What can cause a false positive AFP test?
False-positive results may be because the mother is carrying twins, inaccurate dates, a low birth weight infant, a large placenta or a sample that was contaminated. Abnormal results are also associated with the fact that the baby may be a girl.
Why is AFP low in Down syndrome?
Causes of this decrease may include the production of an altered AFP molecule with modified turnover or transport properties, or a reduction in the level of AFP synthesis.
What is considered a low AFP?
AFP is a protein normally made by the immature liver cells in the fetus. Healthy, nonpregnant adults have very low levels of AFP in the bloodstream (undetectable to about 10 ng/ml).
How do you read an AFP pregnancy test?
A negative or normal test usually means your baby oeds not have genetic abnormalities. A positive test with a high AFP suggests a birth defect like spina bifida. That’s typically a result of 2.5 times or more than the “average” level of AFP you’d expect to see at that point in your pregnancy.
What is alpha fetoprotein for liver?
AFP is a protein that can be measured in the blood of patients with liver cancer. But looking for high AFP levels isn’t a perfect test for liver cancer. Many patients with early liver cancer have normal AFP levels. Also, AFP levels can be increased from other kinds of cancer as well as some non-cancerous conditions.